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Back Exercises Strengthen The Back

Back Exercises Strengthen The Back

The National Institute of Health has estimated that 4 out of 5 Americans suffer from back pain at some time or the other in their lives. Back pain afflicts a person suddenly and without giving any prior symptoms. When affected, one must use their body's own healing ability to combat the pain, instead of preferring medicines, and strengthen their body through back exercises. Back exercises, such as acupuncture, massage therapy, chiropractic, osteopathic care and certain other physical exercises are safer ways of treating back pain.

Basic Guidelines for Back Strengthening Exercises

Back exercises are one of the better ways to relieve yourself from back pain and lead a healthy life. It is important to ensure that exercises are worked within a range of motion, so as not to further strain the painful back. In case you experience pain while doing some stretching steps, stop exercising immediately. Avoid sudden movements and jerks when performing back exercises, even though it maybe hard to perform the steps in a slow and controlled motion.

People suffering from lower back problems face various problems while working out. It is important to get into an exercise routine gradually and build muscle power. Always performing back exercises after consulting your trainer. It is also important to understand that back pain doesn't develop overnight and hence restoration of the back will also take time.

One of the back exercises that gently stretches your back muscles is:

* Lie on your back with knees bent.
* Slowly raise your left knee to your chest, while pressing your lower back firmly against the floor.
* Remain in position for 5 seconds.
* Relax; repeat the exercise with your right knee.
* Repeat this exercise 10 times for each leg.
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Diet After Forty

Diet And Fitness After Forty
Death in middle life is usually due to the giving up of the various vital parts of the body when subjected to strain. Nervous system collapse, high blood pressure, hardening of the arteries, apoplexy, heart failure and kidney disease are some of the types of functional diseases that are likely to set in at this time of life.

To meet this period successfully, certain precautions need to be observed.

1) Cut down on the amount of food eaten sufficiently to combat the tendency to put on weight.

2) Be very moderate in the use of meats, salts and condiments; take plenty of water.

3) Get plenty of fresh air and exercise, but avoid strenuous exertions which overfatigue and place undue strain on the heart.

4) Take more recreation and rest.

5) Cultivate mental hygiene and avoid nervous strain.

Although the same nutritional essentials namely protein, mineral salts and vitamins are required to nourish the body from the cradle to the grave, it should be emphasized that the amounts needed are less in the latter part of life, especially after seventy, than in the more active adult years.

There is no further need of tissue-building materials for growth, and the amount of these substances for tissue maintenance or repair is at a minimum. For this reason, the protein requirement in old age is reduced, while at the same time an excess of protein is more difficult for the body to handle than ever before.

The calorie requirement is also materially reduced for two reasons:

1) Less energy is used in muscular activity

2) Basal metabolism is lowered

It is far easier and wiser to cut down moderately on one’s fuel intake and take more exercise when the tendency to put on weight first manifests itself, than to try to take off excess weight by radical dieting or excessive exercising later on. This advice should not be taken to support excessive reduction in the amount of fuel foods with the desire of attaining underweight, which is fully as undesirable as overweight.

Beyond a slight reduction in the amount of fuel foods and some care to keep down the consumption of meats and other protein-rich foods, no special modification of the diet is needed during this period.

What has been recommended as the best diet for maintaining the body in health and vigor during younger years continues to be "optimum diet" in later years - namely, a diet the basis of which is milk, cereal products, fruits and vegetables, with moderate amounts of protein foods, fats and sugar. The importance of milk, whole grains, eggs and green vegetables as protective foods still holds good.
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Alcohol And It's Detrimental Effects

How Alcohol Affects The Brain
What Is Alcohol?

Alcohol (its scientific name is ethyl alcohol) is produced by a natural process when yeasts ferment sugars. Sugars are found in many plants and, since the earliest time, man has used this process to produce alcoholic drinks from fruits and vegetables.

Alcohol is present in small quantities in many foods, especially sugary fruits which are beginning to ferment. In such small quantities, the effect of alcohol is unlikely to be noticeable and it simply contributes to our food intake. One gram of alcohol contains 7 kilocalories of energy (one teaspoon of alcohol = 4 grams of alcohol). Excess intake is an important cause of obesity - especially in men.

Alcohol Causes Men To Gain Weight

Alcohol And It's Detrimental Long-Term Effects On The Body And Brain

What happens to people when they drink? The consequences of alcohol range from a harmless headache to complete deterioration of the liver. How much alcohol you consume and for how long determine the effect it will have on your body.

These days, alcohol is commonly used to relax and unwind with friends after a long day's work. You can see it at cocktail parties, bars and even front patios. People often look to alcohol as an escape from their problems, but they forget the severe physical and psychological effects it can impose. These effects can happen as soon as an hour after digestion or could be more long-term. They can cause physical or mental changes that could threaten the life of alcohol users and others involved.

How Alcohol Flows Through The Body

From the moment of consumption, alcohol is immediately absorbed in the blood and then delivered throughout the body. One alcoholic beverage remains in the body for approximately two hours after being drunk. This amount of time can be longer for some than others. The person's weight, gender and other factors determine this. What attracts people the most to alcohol is the happy and calm feeling they first experience as the alcohol concentration begins to peak in the blood.

This is followed by a sleepy or confused sensation. You lose a small amount of alcohol when you breathe and urinate, but the rest is absorbed in the small intestines and stomach. Consuming fatty foods hinders the concentration of alcohol. Drinking more alcohol than your body can absorb results in being drunk. Many people have suffered from serious illness simply because they could not handle their liquor. If this happened to you, alcohol rehab would be necessary.

Long Term Effects Of Alcohol

Alcohol's Effect On The Liver, Heart And Brain

Excessive alcohol consumption affects more than one part of the body. It can be notably destructive to the liver, the organ responsible for alcohol metabolism. People who drink constantly for prolonged periods of time can acquire illnesses including liver scarring or inflammation. More severe alcohol-related diseases can lead to death.

Immediate Effects Of Alcohol

Alcohol also has a significant impact on movement, memory, judgment and speech. It is easy to identify the signs of intoxication as they include memory lapses, impulsive actions, slurred speech and difficulty moving. When people get really drunk, they often end up spending the night vomiting, followed by a painful hangover the next morning. It really is a horrible feeling.

Blackouts And Memory Lapses

Alcohol can also cause noticeable damage to memory after only a couple of drinks. The amount of alcohol you drink increases the level of impairment. Large concentrations of alcohol, when quickly digested, can result in a blackout in which the intoxicated person experiences brief periods of blindness. They also may have difficulty remembering specific details of that night come the morning after.

Binge Drinking And Effects

Getting drunk might feel good for the moment, but the long-term effects are not worth it. Not only do you feel horrible in the morning, but you also risk liver damage and addiction. Since alcohol impairs vision and judgment, it is crucial to never get behind the wheel after drinking. If you feel as if you can't stop, there are many rehab facilities dedicated to getting you back on the right track. A healthy life is attainable by simply putting down the bottle.

Alcohol Causes The Brain To Shrink

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Fitness Rowers Are The Best

Fitness Rower Exercise The Entire Body

For a complete workout of the body fitness rowers are the best. They exercise the entire body, much in the same that swimming does. Thus it's a great cardio vascular exercise, which helps to lose the calories as well as tone up the body. The fitness rower uses air as a means of resistance. Fitness rowers come with a variety of resistance levels. Thus a person can have the workout required by them. Therefore athletes as well as the beginners use it. The smaller fitness rowers are meant for home use. They can also be folded and tucked away to increase the usage of the spaces inside the house.

The best fitness rowers are also the most expensive ones. The upper end of the fitness rowers is means for the gym. They have a variety of resistance levels as well as programs to suit the needs of all. A control panel is a must because this displays feedback readings when exercising (found on the best fitness rowers) thereby making the exerciser reach their optimum workout level.

Fitness Rower
Since stationary bikes and the like can't be stowed away, the usual storability of rowing machines is one of the greatest benefits they have. It is not an all-encompassing rule because the larger more expensive machines, although space efficient are not foldable.

Fitness rowers need to be assembled, before they can be made usable for workouts. Hence one should read the instructions manual carefully so as not to break any parts while assembling the fitness rower. The personal trainer or the gym instructor should be asked before . Ask around for the best available fitness rowers within a particular budgets. Sometimes the best fitness rowers are also available on discounts. Shop around before you purchase a fitness rower. This will enable you to negotiate for lower prices also and thus you can have savings.
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The Benefits Of Using A Rebounder

Fitness Rebounder
A rebounder is simply a term used for a mini trampoline. The popularity of using this type of device has grown significantly because of all the health benefits associated with using one. People of all ages and health conditions are able to use this apparatus to improve health and fitness.

Rebounders are readily available at sporting good stores, fitness specialty stores, and can be found multiple places online. Choose a model that is sturdy enough with six legs. Models with only four legs can tend to tip over and be dangerous. Choose one where the legs can be unscrewed for easy storage under the bed or in a closet. They are also very affordable, many costing less than a month’s membership to a fitness center.

Rebounding can be done by people of all ages and physical abilities because of the low impact on joints. The springs in the system help cushion blows, reducing risks associated with traditional aerobic exercise. Exercises can be as varied as your imagination, but the important thing is to bounce for a period of time to get your heart rate up. There are also numerous videos available to give more regimented workouts by following an instructor.

Using a rebounder stimulates the metabolism, circulates oxygen, and strengthens the heart. It increases the capacity of the lungs and improves muscle tone. It also helps enhance the immune system, aiding in the prevention of illness. This is a great tool to help combat obesity by providing valuable, low impact exercise. Exercise has been shown to reduce tension brought on by everyday stress and pressures. Rebounding enhances this element by being particularly fun. From children to seniors, this type of exercise is greatly enjoyable.

Rebounding can help reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. It can also improve coordination and balance. If you have incontinence problems, rebounding can actually help with this by exercising and strengthening the cells. You can see improved bladder control in a relatively short period of time. It is also an ideal exercise routine for anyone who is recovering from illness or physical ailments such as broken bones or strained muscles. Since bouncing does not work against gravity, there is no undue strain on already damaged muscles and joints. You can help strengthen them without causing more harm.

Rebounding has become widely popular as a form of exercise. There are numerous medical benefits to this type of aerobic exercise as well as the psychological benefits from reducing stress. Because of the low impact, this type of exercise can be performed by people of all ages, weights and physical conditions. This is also one of the most fun forms of exercise. Who doesn’t like to bounce?
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Why Home Exercise Equipment is Better Than a Gym Membership

Home Exercise Fitness Equipment
Everyone buys gym memberships with the best of intentions. You plan to go several times a week. You plan to take advantage of classes or sessions with personal trainers. You have every intention of formulating a plan, and sticking to it. The problem is: the gym is too easy to avoid. And the reasons for avoiding it are just too good.

It's not just laziness. Commute times are getting longer and longer: the last thing you want to do before or after work is spend some more time driving to a gym and fighting for a parking space. That's assuming you even have the option: if you have kids to pick up or drop off, or chores to do at home, you may simply not have the time you feel you need to get a good workout at the gym.

This is where the benefits of home exercise equipment really show. You can snatch a few minutes here and there on the treadmill while dinner's cooking. You can watch your kids while you work out. You can watch your own DVD's in the comfort of air conditioning set to your preference while you use a stationary bike, elliptical or treadmill. You can listen to music you like, set up some aromatherapy that you find inspiring, or do some reading while you exercise. And when you're done, you can take a shower in the comfort of your own bathroom, with all your favourite shampoos, soaps and towels right there waiting for you.

Most importantly, how many times can you look at a piece of exercise equipment before you run out of excuses? If you're thinking, "You have no idea how many", you might be surprised. Every time you see it, you're reminded of the benefits it offers you, and you start thinking of ways to work it into your schedule almost without trying.
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Risk Factors For Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
When a child regularly feels down and does not exhibit an interest in playing or going to school, it may already be signs of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). This is a complex disorder characterized by profound fatigue and is not improved by bed rest. It may even be worsened by strenuous physical activities or excessive mental exertion.

Children with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome usually functioned at a much lower level of strength even before the onset of the illness. A child suffering from CFS may also show signs of general weakness, muscle pain, impaired memory or poor mental concentration, insomnia, and post-exertion fatigue that lasts for more than 24 hours.

To better understand this mysterious illness that afflicts thousands if not millions of children around the world, a team of researchers conducted a study to determine the connection between this specific illness to stress and emotional abuse. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), childhood trauma increases the child or adults' risk of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome by three to eightfold. A separate study based on the data from the Swedish Twin Registry shows that stress is a triggering factor for the said fatigue syndrome.

It also shows that emotional instability is a significant Chronic Fatigue Syndrome risk factor, although genetic and family factors also determine whether this personality trait leads to excessive and regular fatigue. Researchers from CDC support the hypothesis that CFS represents a disorder of adaptation that is promoted by early environmental factors such as lack of nutrition and emotional support - which, later on, leads to failure to adequately respond to physical, mental, and emotional challenges.

In their separate study, researchers Karolinska Institute have found that stress is a significant risk factor for chronic fatigue-like illness, the effect of which may be buffered by genetic influences. Emotional instability recorded 25 years earlier among research subjects has been associated with chronic fatigue through genetic mechanisms contributing to both personality style and expression of the disorder. To  study was culled from a community-based sample of more than 56,000 residents of Wichita, Kansas. At the time of the study, they had identified 43 people with ongoing CFS.

For the study, they compared these people to 60 matched people without fatigue. A key finding was that severe childhood trauma was linked to a higher risk of CFS. There was an eightfold higher risk of CFS with childhood sexual abuse, a 5.9-fold higher risk of CFS with childhood physical neglect, a 4.6-fold higher risk of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome with childhood emotional neglect, a 4.3-fold higher risk of CFS with childhood physical abuse and a 2.9 fold higher risk of CFS with childhood emotional abuse.

These studies also suggest that CFS is part of a spectrum of disorders that are associated with childhood adversity. In adulthood, these disorders frequently manifest or worsen in relation to acute stress or challenge. These disorders might reflect the brain's inability to adapt or compensate in response to challenge, leading toward maladaptive responses and ultimately disease.

Other studies made on more than 19,000 twins born in Sweden revealed that emotionally instability was linked to a 72% higher risk of CFS symptoms. Emotional instability is a personality trait and tends to result in low self-esteem and feelings of anxiety, depression, and guilt. In conclusion, emotional instability is a serious risk factor for CFS, whether a person with this personality trait actually gets CFS depends on unknown genetic and family factors.

Thus, emotional instability is an indirect risk factor for CFS, while stress is a direct risk factor.
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Five Steps To Staying Mentally Sharp And Prevent Alzheimer's Disease

Prevent Alzheimer's Disease
If you want to stay sharp and in control of your life well into your golden years, there are proactive methods to achieving the mental alertness you need. More and more research is pointing to the fact that physical activity and lifestyle choices have more to do with preventing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of dementia - once thought to be a normal part of aging - than pure genetics. So if you had a parent, grandparent or sibling with Alzheimer's disease it doesn't mean you have to follow the same path.

Statistics gathered from extensive research do point toward a higher risk of developing AD if you had a close relative with AD - as much as 50%, but that has less to do with genes and more to do with following their lifestyle patterns. If for example, your parents were smokers who rarely exercised, you may have developed some of the same destructive habits.

What Can You Do To Break The Cycle And Prevent Alzheimer's Disease?

Take action and take control today. Even if you are in your 60s or 70s you can reverse some of the damage done to your brain through poor diet, inactivity, or damaging lifestyle choices. Scientists have discovered very recently that the brain has the ability to repair cells and neurotransmitters and improve cognitive function and memory.

It's Not Too Late to Make A Difference: Start these 5 Steps Today:

1. Eat Right. It seems so simple, yet too many people just don't get enough of the mind preserving antioxidants found in fresh fruits and vegetables. A well-balanced diet, free of diary products and using low fat sources of protein will protect both heart and mind.

2. Supplement where necessary. Many diets lack the nutrients proven to promote brain health. These include sources of essential fatty acids found in fish and specific herbs and minerals that can enhance cognitive function.

3. Exercise. Originally it was thought that exercise increases blood flow and oxygen to the brain cells. This is still true, but a report prepared for the National Institutes of Health states that exercise can also stimulate the production growth factors, which are molecules produced by the body to repair and maintain nerves.

4. Lower Your Cholesterol. Many people with early dementia or AD symptoms may have actually experienced small strokes that damaged the brain's neurotransmitters. By keeping cholesterol levels in check, the arteries are free and clear of plaque that can cause stroke.

5. Do your Mental Exercises. Keeping up with current events, working puzzles each day, learning and memorizing new information all work to keeping a mind strong and alert. It is normal for people to sometimes forget a name or date, but the more practice recalling such information the greater the brain's ability to do this throughout old age. In the case of mental challenges, the more you do the more you can push back the clock on cognitive decline.

Five easy steps, when you think about it, can do much to make aging an event to celebrate instead of dread. With age there comes experience and wisdom, and we should all do whatever is within our power to be able to pass that on to the next generation.
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Facts About Insomnia

Facts About Insomnia
Not getting enough sleep is fast becoming a common problem among people who lead fast, busy lives. Sleeplessness is also a typical condition among the elderly.  However, being young is no guarantee that one would be free from the suffering brought about by sleeping disorders.

Almost all people have experience occasional sleepless nights. But not too many people realize the seriousness of not getting enough quality sleep. Based on research, as many as 25% of Americans report occasional sleeping problems.

The latest surveys indicate that insomnia is already a chronic problem for at 10% of the entire U.S. population. The cumulative impact of sleeplessness on a population has a bearing on personal health as well as productivity in the workplace. Lack of restful sleep impairs the person's ability to carry out daily tasks and responsibilities.

Aside from feeling tired, people who lack sleep have trouble concentrating and tend to get very irritable.  Imagine having those feelings or low level of physical strength while driving on a busy highway or being in the middle of an important business meeting. The results could be outright disastrous for one's career or even life-threatening. Conversely, people who get enough continuous and quality sleep are more able to perform at work or in other activities the following day. 

But How Much Sleep Do We Really Need?

Sleep requirements vary over the life cycle. Newborns and infants need a lot of sleep and require several periods of sleep throughout a 24-hour time period. Naps are important to them as well as to toddlers who may have need for naps up to the age of 5. As children enter adolescence, their sleep patterns shift to a later sleep-wake cycle, but they still need around 9 hours of sleep.

Throughout adulthood, even as a person gets older, they still need 7-9 hours of sleep. Sleep patterns may change, but the need for sleep remains the same. Most adults do best with about 8 hours of sleep each night until age 60, after which 6 hours may be adequate. Even though the elderly need less sleep, almost one half of people over 60 experience some degree of insomnia.

Insomnia is not a disorder, it is a symptom and not a stand-alone diagnosis. In simple terms, insomnia is  difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, or both. It is a term that is used to indicate any and all stages and types of sleep loss.

Although most of us know what insomnia is all about, very few people actually get to seek medical advice and treatment. Many people are actually unaware of the behavioural and medical options available for treating insomnia.

However, there are various medications that supposedly effective for dealing with insomnia. Over-the-counter sleeping pills and long-acting or high-dose sedatives can be purchased easily, but it may make the problem worse. Many of these sleeping aids contain antihistamines as the main ingredient. Antihistamines are known to cause sluggishness and, if used for long periods, could possibly cause memory impairment.

Strong, prescription sedatives do not produce a natural, restful sleep. If used for extensive periods, a patient may even develop tolerance or dependence on these drugs. However, suddenly stopping the use of the medication may cause rebound insomnia and withdrawal. If insomnia has been interfering with one's daily routine or quality of life for a month or longer, it is already time to see a doctor to determine what might be the cause of the sleep problem and how it might be treated.
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Making Healthy Food Choices

Making Healthy Food Choices
Vegetables, fruits, and grains are normally low in fat and have no cholesterol. Most are great sources of dietary fiber, complex carbs, and vitamins. The American Heart Association recommends that you eat foods that are high in complex carbs and fiber.

Below are some tips for making healthy food choices:

* Coconut is high in saturated fat, while olives are high in monounsaturated fats and calories. You should use these items sparingly to avoid getting too many calories from fat.

* When vegetable grains are cooked, saturated fat or cholesterol is often added. For example, egg yolks may be added to bread or even pasta.

* Processed, canned, or preserved vegetables may also contain added sodium. With some people, too much sodium (salt) may lead to high blood pressure. There are some food companies that are actually canning vegetables with less salt. You can look for these in the market area or choose fresh and even frozen vegetables.

* Nuts and seeds tend to be high in calories and fat, although a majority of the fat is polyunsaturated or monounsaturated. There are some varieties, macadamie nuts for example, that are also high in saturated fat.

Foods that are high in soluble fiber are a great choice as well. Examples include oat bran, oatmeal, beans, peas, rice bran, barley and even apple pulp.

Whenever you are looking for healthy food choices, always make sure you read the nutrition label or information about the food. You can then determine what the food contains and how healthy it truly is for your body.

By taking your time and making your healthy food choices wisely, you'll have a lifetime to enjoy the foods that will take care of you.
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Nails In Health And Disease

Nails In Health And Disease, Nail Discolouration
The nails are present at the end of each finger tip on the dorsal surface. The main function of nail is protection and it also helps for a firm grip for holding articles. It consists of a strong relatively flexible keratinous nail plate originating from the nail matrix.

Under the nail plate there is a soft tissue called nail bed. Between the skin and nail plate there is a nail fold or cuticle.Normal healthy nail is slight pink in colour and the surface is convex from side to side. Finger nails grow 1 cm in three months and toe nails take 24 months for the same.

Importance of nails in disease diagnosis:

The colour, appearance, shape and nature of the nails give some information about the general health and hygiene of a person. Nails are examined as a routine by all doctors to get some clues about underlying diseases. Just looking at nails we can makeout the hygiene of a person. The abnormal nail may be congenital or due to some diseases. The cause for changes in the nail extend from simple reasons to life threatening diseases. Hence the examination by a doctor is essential for diagnosis. Some abnormal findings with probable causes are discussed here for general awareness.

1) Hygiene:

We can make out an unhygienic nail very easily. Deposition of dirt under the distal end of nail plate can make a chance for ingestion of pathogens while eating. If nail cutting is not done properly it can result in worm troubles in children. When the worms crawl in the anal orifice children will scratch which lodges the ova of worms under the nails and will be taken in while eating. Prominent nail can also complicate a skin disease by habitual scratching. Sharp nails in small kids cause small wounds when they do feet kicking or hand waving.

2) Colour Of The Nails:

a) Nails become pale in anaemia.

b) Opaque white discolouration (leuconychia) is seen in chronic renal failure and nephrotic syndrome.

c) Whitening is also seen in hypoalbuminaemia as in cirrhosis and kidney disorders.
d) Drugs like sulpha group, anti malarial and antibiotics ect can produce discolouration in the nails.
e) Fungal infection causes black discolouration.

f) In pseudomonas infection nails become black or green.

g) Nail bed infarction occurs in vasculitis especially in SLE and polyarteritis.

h) Red dots are seen in nails due to splinter haemorrhages in subacute bacterial endo carditis, rheumatoid arthritis, trauma, collagen vascular diseases.

i) Blunt injury produces haemorrhage and causes blue/black discolouration.

j) Nails become brown in kidney diseases and in decreased adrenal activity.

k) In Wilsons disease blue colour in semicircle appears in the nail.

l) When the blood supply decreases nail become yellow. In jaundice and psoriasis also nail become yellowish.

m) In yellow nail syndrome all nails become yellowish with pleural effusion.

3) Shape Of Nails:

a) Clubbing: Here tissues at the base of nails are thickened and the angle between the nail base and the skin is obliterated. The nail becomes more convex and the finger tip becomes bulbous and looks like an end of a drumstick. When the condition becomes worse the nail looks like a parrot beak.

Causes of clubbing:

Congenital Injuries

Severe chronic cyanosis

Lung diseases like empyema, bronchiactesis, carcinoma of bronchus and pulmonary tuberculosis.

Abdominal diseases like crohn's disease, polyposis of colon, ulcerative colitis, liver cirrhosis etc.

Heart diseases like fallot's tetralogy, subacute bacterial endocarditis and etc.
b) Koilonychia:

Here the nails become concave like a spoon. This condition is seen in iron deficiency anaemia. In this condition the nails become thin, soft and brittle. The normal convexity will be replaced by concavity.

c) Longitudinal ridging is seen in Raynaud's disease.

d) Cuticle becomes ragged in dermatomyositis.

e) Nail fold telangiectasia is a sign in dermatomyositis ,systemic sclerosis and SLE.

4) Structure And Consistancy:

Psoriatic Nail Disease
a) Fungal infection of nail causes discolouration, deformity, hypertrophy and abnormal brittleness.

b) Thimble pitting of nail is charecteristic of psoriasis, acute eczema and alopecia aereata.
c) The inflamation of cuticle or nail fold is called paronychia.

d) Onycholysis is the seperation of nail bed seen in psoriasis, infection and after taking tetracyclines.

e) Destruction of nail is seen in lichen planus, epidermolysis bullosa.

f) Missing nail is seen in nail patella syndrome. It is a hereditary disease.

g) Nails become brittle in Raynaud's disease and gangrene.

h) Falling of nail is seen in fungal infection, psoriasis and thyroid diseases.

5) Growth:

Reduction in blood supply affects the growth of nails. Nail growth is also affected in severe ilness. when the disease disappears the growth starts again resulting in formation of transverse ridges. These lines are called Beau's lines and are helpful to date the onset of illness.
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Supplements And Your Health

Supplements And Your Health
A lot of people these days are trying to make their health better. No matter where you turn, from TV to newspapers, you'll see stories about people and how bad their health actually is. Even though there are many different companies out there that offer vitamins and supplements and claim that they will change your healthy, you'll need to research what they offer and sure that you aren't just wasting your money.

If you are looking to improve your health, you'll need to at many different vitamin supplements to find which ones are the best for you. You should look at everything available, and not just try a few to see what happens. Dieting is the ideal place to start, as it can make the most improvements on your health. Dieting can change your body, and make you feel a lot better as well.

These days, a lot of people eat way too much sweets and sugar, choosing refined products over healthy food. Even though it isn't a bad thing to enjoy sweets and chocolate, you should never make a habit out of it. You can still enjoy your favourite foods as well, although you should be looking at the healthy benefits of food as well and think of everything as a whole.

If you include healthy foods such as salads, vegetables, and fruit into your diet, you'll be eating healthy. Protein is also beneficial to your health, as it promotes the growth of your muscle. Those of you, who are serious about eating healthy but are unsure where to start, should contact a nutritionist. They will be able to tell you where to start, and how to achieve a healthy diet that will chance your life.
Even though you may be eating healthy or trying to eat healthy, you'll probably find yourself wondering about vitamins and supplements and how much of an impact they have on your diet. Dieticians are ideal to consult with these types of questions, as they can answer any questions relating to vitamins that you have. They can also tell you which supplements are ideal to your health, and which ones you should include in your diet.

Different people will have different needs and requirements, making it essential to get advice from a qualified professional. If you get the advice from a professional, you'll know what you can add to your diet. If you try to do it all yourself without the advice of a professional, you can end up not getting enough in your diet, or you could end up taking something that you shouldn't be taken.

Exercise is also important to your diet and your health. Although supplements and vitamins will go a long way, exercise will do a lot for your body. If you exercise on a regular basis, and take the right supplements and vitamins with your diet, you'll notice that you have more energy and you feel better than you ever have in your life.

Before you start with your new diet or rush out and buy your new vitamin supplements, you should always check with your doctor first to see if he has any recommendations. You should also tell him what type of exercise you are planning on doing, and see if there are any complications with your health. Getting a healthy lifestyle is always a great thing, although you should always consult with your doctor. This way, you'll know the best way to start and how to go about getting in the best shape of your life.
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Eating Healthy On A Budget

Eating Healthy On A Budget
If you have problems serving healthy foods because of the prices, you'll find these tips to be just what you need to eat healthy on a budget.

1. Eliminate junk food Doing your shopping on your own is the easiest way to shop, as children and sometimes spouses are usually the ones requesting junk food. Shopping alone will prevent this, and ensure that you only buy the foods you need.

2. Water or milk instead of soft drinks You can still enjoy your favourite drinks at a sporting event or night out, although you should stick with the smallest size when shopping to save money and calories. Children and even adults need milk or milk products on a daily basis. Milk will also help you get strong and provides calcium for healthy bones and healthy teeth.

3. Buy fruits in quantity when they are in season, buy fruits in quantity and freeze any extras. You can buy several pounds this way, and freeze extras to have them when the fruit goes out of season. Wash the fruit well, remove any spoiled pieces, dry thoroughly, then freeze in plastic zipper bags.

4. Meats and beans Meats and beans are the best sources for protein. Lean meat is more expensive than meats with a lot of fat. Canned beans are a great deal as well, as they give you protein at a great price.

5. Beans as a substitute You should use beans a substitute for meat on a frequent occasion. There are several varieties, so you can prepare them in a crock pot, so when you return home they are ready to consume.

Eating Healthy On A Budget
The USDA recommends eating beans at least 4 times per week. If you experience gas after eating beans you should try washing them, covering them with water, bringing the water to a boil, then draining it off and refilling the pot.

6. If you live in a coastal area or an area where fish are around, make that an integral part of your diet. You can catch them from the lakes or rivers, saving money in the process.

7. Peanut butter is great for those on a budget as it's popular with almost everyone. You can use it for sandwiches instead of eating hot dogs. It does need to be refrigerated, although bigger jars can last you for weeks.

8. You should fill up with foods that have a high content of water. Watermelon, salads, and even sugar free gelatin are all great examples.

Eating healthy is always something you can't go wrong with. You can eat healthy for just a few bucks, which makes it perfect for those on a budget. Now, you don't need a lot of money to have the lifestyle and health you've always wanted.
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Cerebral Palsy Causes, Signs And Symptoms

It is a non progressive neuromuscular disorder causing mild to severe disabilities throughout life. This condition is manifested as a group of persisting qualitative motor disorders which appear in young children due to damage to the brain during delivery or due to some pathological conditions in the intrauterine life.

The neurological problems are multiple but non progressive in nature. Approximately 2 per 100 live birth is having this problem. This disease is having no hereditary tendency.

Cerebral Palsy Causes, Signs And Symptoms
Causes of Cerebral Palsy:

1) Injury to the brain during delivery
2) As a complication of forceps delivery
3) Lack of oxygen supply to the baby during delivery
4) Infections during delivery

Signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy:

The signs and symptoms may not be similar in all babies affected. Depending upon the damage to the brain there may be mild to severe lesions.

Mild cases: 20% children will have mild disability.

Moderate cases: 50% cases are having moderate disability. The affected children require self help for assisting their impaired ambulation capacity.

Severe cases: About 30% of the affected children are totally incapacitated and bedridden and they all ways need care from others.

Abnormal Findings In Cerebral Palsy:

1. Abnormal neonatal reflexes
2. Stiffness of all muscles with awkward motion
3. Extention of extremities on vertical suspension of the infant
4. Scissoring of the lower limbs due to spasm of the adductor muscles of the thigh
5. In severe cases the back bend backwards like and arch
6. May have total or partial paralysis
7. Arrest of neurological and behavioral developement
8. Swallowing may be difficult in some cases
9. Drooling of saliva
10. Mild to severe mental retardations
11. Abnormal movements are seen in some cases
12. Tremors with typical movements
13. If cerebellum is affected there will be loss of muscle tone with difficulty in walking
14. Complete or partial loss of hearing
15. Speech may be affected
16. Squint and other visual problems may be associated
17. Convulsions may be seen in some children

Cerebral palsy is diagnosed by detailed clinical examination and by eliminating other similar diseases like brain tumour, progressive atrophy etc. All investigations like CT scan, MRI and routine investigations are needed to rule out other diseases.

Management of Cerebral Palsy

General management:
This includes proper nutrition and personal care. Symptomatic medicines are needed to reduce convulsions and muscle stiffness. Diazepam can reduce spasticity and athetosis. Dantrolene sodium helps to relax skeletal muscles.

Here massage, exercise, hydrotherapy and etc are needed. Special training is given to train walking, swallowing and talking. The affected children are also trained to hold articles for routine activities.

Moral and social support should be given to these children. They should be send to special schools where special training can be given by trained staff. Mentally retarded children need special training. Depending up on the disability special instruments and machines are given for locomotion and to assist their day to day activities.

Occupational therapy:
This is given by occupational therapists. They train the disabled people to do some suitable works so that these people can have their own income.
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Low Back Pain Causes And Treatment

Low Back Pain Causes And Treatment
Low back pain is a usual symptom among the modern civilised people. It affects mainly the middle aged and young adults of both sexes. People who work on the chair with out exercise and those who carry heavy loads regularly are prone to get this complaint.

We can hardly find a person who has not suffered from back pain at least once in life. The causes of low back pain ranges from simple reasons like muscular strain to cancer of spine and hence backache should not be ignored.

The pain is felt in lumbar and sacral region and may radiate to nearby sites.

The following are some causes for backache
1) Backache due to diseases in the back
2) Backache due to gynaecological problems
3) Backache due to problems in other parts of the body

1) Backache due to diseases in the back:
a) Injuries:
1) Compression fracture of the vertebral column
2) Rupture of intervertebral discs
3) Injuries to ligaments and muscles of back
4) Lumbosacral strain
5) Intervertebral joint injuries
6) Fracture of processes of vertebra

b) Functional backache due to imbalance:
1) During pregnancy
2) Pot belly
3) Diseases of the hip joint
4) Curvature in the spine due to congenital defect
5) Short leg in one side
c) Backache due to inflammatory conditions:
1) Infection of the bone due to bacteria
2) Tuberculosis of the spine
3) Arthritis
4) Brucellosis
5) Lumbago or fibrositis
6) Inflamation of the muscles
7) Anchylosing spondylitis

d) Backache due to degenerative diseases in the back
1) Osteoarthritis
2) Osteoporosis in old people
3) Degenaration of the intervertebral disc

e) Tumour in the spine:
1) Primory tumour of the bones in the spine
2) Metastatic tumours from other sites like prostate, lungs, kidneys, intestine etc.

2) Backache due to gynaecological problems:
a) After childbirth
b) After gynaecological operations
c) Prolapse of the uterus
d) Pelvic inflammatory diseases
e) Cancerous lesions of the pelvic organs
f) Endometriosis.

3) Backache due to problems in other parts of the body
a) Renal stones
b) Ureteric stone
c) Cancer of prostate
d) Pancreatitis
e) Biliary stones
f) Peptic ulcer
g) Inflammations of pelvic organs
h) Occlusion of aorta and iliac arteries

Investigation of a case of backache:
1) Complete blood count
2) Routine urine examination
3) Ultrasonography of the abdomen and pelvis
4) X-ray of the lumbar and sacral region
5) MRI of the spine
5) CT scan of abdomen and pelvic region
6) Examination of rectum, prostate, genito urinary organs

Treatment of backache:
1) Removing the cause for backache
2) Symptomatic treatment
2) Back exercises
3) Traction
3) Yoga
5) Surgery
7) Homoeopathy
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Physical Fitness And Health

Physical fitness is a general state of health and well-being and more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports or occupations. Physical fitness is generally achieved through correct nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical activity, exercise and rest. It is a set of attributes or characteristics seen in people and which relate to the ability to perform a given set of physical activities.

Before the industrial revolution, fitness was the capacity to carry out the day's activities without undue fatigue. However with automation and changes in lifestyles physical fitness is now considered a measure of the body's ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations.

Fitness is defined as the quality of being suitable to perform a particular task. Modern definition of fitness describe either a person or machine's ability to perform a specific function or a holistic definition of human adaptability to cope with various situations.

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